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Are all Ashkenazim partly Sephardi? April 20, 2009

Posted by ethnicgenome in Jews.
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I theorized before that Ashkenazi Jews must be related to the original Sephardim. People who don’t know Jewish history think of the Sephardim as Jews from Islamic countries. That is wrong. Those Jews are Mizrachi Jews who merely adopted Sephardic traditions. The real Sephardic Jews are West Europeans, and the Ashkenazim are Central and East Europeans (from Germany to Russia).

When Sephardic Jews were expelled from Spain and Portugal, they went to Turkey and Holland. There are still a lot of Sephardim in Turkey, but what happened to all the Dutch Jews like the great philosopher Benedict de Spinoza?

Ashkenazi Jews originated on the Rhine River, somewhere near Cologne and Düsseldorf. The region is right next to Holland, so it’s impossible that the two communities wouldn’t intermarry with each other.

The sudden disappearance of Sephardic Jews in Holland and the simultaneous skyrocketing of the nearby Ashkenazi population could be a coincidence, but that’s far-fetched. Why would the Dutch Jews disappear? Do we really think that the Rhine Jews all had historically unheard of number of children per woman to grow their population so quickly?

It is more likely that the two communities just united.

Take a look at this map from wikipedia (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/e/e3/Cohanim_DNA_migration_.jpg)

It shows Jews migrating to Spain and Portugal, then from there into Central and Eastern Europe. In Iberia, there were no Ashkenazim. In Central and Eastern Europe, there were no Sephardim. If family was in Spain first, then went to Poland, then they must’ve started out as Sephardim and then became Ashkenazim. Not as a matter of genetics, but as a matter of religious tradition.

Today we think of Mizrachi Jews as Sephardim because they adopted their religious traditions. But genetically, Ashkenazi Jews must have more Sephardic blood than do Mizrachi Jews. This is because both Sephardim and Ashkenazim were European Jews who lived right next to each other, while the Mizrachi were in the far-away Middle East and Central Asia.

The last names of people who originated from Iberia are some of the more common Ashkenazi names: Kaplan, Garfinkel, Mazer, Katz, Kohn, Kovacs, Cowan, Coyne, Kahan, Kagan, Cohen, Shapiro. Many of these names originated when the families were already in Central and Eastern Europe (or the British Isles), but the family history lays with Portuguese and Spanish Sephardim.

Early IQ tests on Jews with low scores March 8, 2009

Posted by ethnicgenome in Uncategorized.
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There’s a very popular myth that Jews once got low scores on IQ tests, but now do well.

The claim is a lie invented by Stephen Jay Gould who wrote in his book that IQ tests showed that 83% of Jews and 79% of Italians were tested to be “feeble-minded”.

“Could anyone be made to believe that four-fifth of any nation were morons?” argued Gould.

But let us look at what Professor H. H. Goddard actually wrote.

The first sentence in his paper states that, “this is not a study of immigrants in general but of six small highly selected gruops,” leaving out those at either end of the scale who were “obviously” either normal or feeble-minded. (H.H. Goddard, “Mental Tests and the Immigrant,” Journal of Delinquency 2, (1917): 243)

The IQ test was given to adults who have previously been classified as mildly retarded. Of those, about 80% got a “feeble-minded” result on the IQ test. That mildly retarded people would get such a score isn’t surprising.

But what did Prof. Goddard actually write about the Jews?

In 1927, he supervised a Master’s thesis entitled “The Intelligence of Jews compared with Non-Jews”, which was published by Ohio State University Press. In his introduction, Goddard said that it proved that Jews are more intelligent than Gentiles and his conclusion was substantiated by the constant persecution of the Jews, “for we are seldom jealous of our inferiors.”

Prof. Goddard may have been many things, but antisemite he was not. (If anything, he was a Jewish supremacist.) Smearing him and through him all the IQ testers must end.

[You can read more about it in the Affirmative Action Hoax]

Jewish IQ February 28, 2009

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Jewish IQ is usually stated to be one standard deviation above that of Gentile whites, which is about 115. Some estimates are a little lower, some a little higher.

This is Half Sigma‘s breakdown of what this would mean in different IQ groups.

The real breakdown is actually a little different because Jews have a much wider range than whites Gentiles (who in turn have a wider range than Asians). Jews, despite having a higher average IQ, are also more likely than European-Americans to score at the lower end. But in the genius range, they are even more dominant. In the 1950s, New York City conducted a study which sought to find teenagers with IQ of 170 or above. Out of 28 students they found, 24 were Jewish.

A group with a narrow range like the Asians may have a high average IQ, but produce very few Nobel Prize winners. Almost all their people are either average or above average, but few are geniuses or incapable of graduating from school. Jews are the direct opposite. Many Jews have a low IQ, but the reverse side of the coin is the high proportion of Jewish geniuses.

Supposing that Jews are 2% of the population of the United States, and Jews have a median IQ of 115, and gentiles have a median IQ of 100, and both groups have a standard deviation of 15, the following chart shows the percentage of Jews at various IQ breakpoints:

Gentiles Jews
Entire pop. 98% 2%
IQ > 100 96.7% 3.3%
IQ > 115 94.0% 6.0%
IQ > 130 87.5% 12.5%
IQ > 145 74.4% 25.6%

Jews, despite their tiny population, would naturally be a much larger percentage of people in careers that require high IQs. This would be even further distorted if Jews had a cultural tendency to prefer certain types of careers over others, such as writing over hard science.

Writing Hollywood screenplays is a very highly g-loaded task, thus Jewish people comprise a very high percentage of screenplay writers. Stand-up comedy also seems to be highly g-loaded.

With the exception of folk rock, pop music is not so highly g-loaded so Jews aren’t as disproportionately represented among pop musicians.

Just as there’s not a white conspiracy keeping blacks from scoring well on the SAT, there is not a Jewish conspiracy keeping gentiles from writing screenplays. It’s just about the distribution of IQ.

Now take a look at Arthur Hu’s Jewish Spectrum.

By Population Ratio
Ratio Average=1.00
60.00 Time 20th Cent Top 20 (worldwide)
23.00 Westinghouse Science Talent Search
15.00 Supreme Court Law Clerk
13.00 US Law School Professor
12.00 ACM Turing Awards
10.00 Ivy League doc\94\13\ivypoll.wk1
7.14 Clinton Cabinet
7.00 McArthur Awards
6.89 Time 1997 Top 25
5.8 CA Congress 1992
5.35 UCLA ’91 Jews at high selective colleges
5.00 Pulitzer Prize
5.00 US Senator
4.80 Graduate Degree Nat Jewish Pop Surv
4.47 US Congress 1992
3.80 Fortune CEO 4-28-86
2.65 College Grad+
2.25 Liberal
2.00 Abortion always legal
1.85 Incomes over $40,000
1.80 Voted in 1994 congress race
1.70 Per capita Income Dale Warner / Thomas Sowell
1.95 Democrat Kosmin ’91
1.75 Democratic
1.12 2002 National Jewish Commitee Survey household income
1.05 Some College
-1.75 Conservative
-1.85 Republican
-1.92 Women 30-34 with children 52% vs 27%
-2.38 For Republican House
-2.75 Not registered to vote
-2.95 Income under $20,000 1988 LA Times
-3.25 HS Dropout
-5.2 Voted 96 Republican President

Why Study Jewish Genes? February 27, 2009

Posted by ethnicgenome in Jews.
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The blog will hopefully deal with a lot of different ethnic groups. Right now I am beginning with Jews and consider such study essential.

There are several reasons for this.

For religious reasons and due to anti-Semitism (such as segregation into the Jewish ghetto and the Pale of Settlement), Jews have been isolated genetically from other populations. Even when a Jew married a Gentile, the children were more likely to join the dominant majority rather than a persecuted minority. The lack of outside genetic inflow makes Jews a gold-mine in the study of ethnicity.

Jews are also distinct in several ways. Ashkenazi Jews also score the highest IQ of any ethnicity, with estimates ranging from 107 to 117 (half to full standard deviation). On the flip side of the coin is the lack of Jewish athletes, false myths about the Golden Age of Jewish Athleticism notwithstanding.

It is also less taboo to discuss Jews than others. Jews have a higher IQ than Gentiles passes much easier than whites have a higher IQ than  blacks.

And finally, while rank and file Jews usually acknowledge, at least in private, their intelligence and lack of athleticism, it is also the leftist Jews such as Stephen Rose, Gerald Dworkin and Richard Lewontin who’ve led the offensive of Lysenkoism (genes don’t matter, one can always adjust to become Albert Einstein or Tiger Woods) against evolution and genetics.

The funny thing is that there’s more information on Jewish genetics than on anyone else.

And to answer the question that I will surely face as to whether I am “some kind of Nazi” for writing about Jewish genetics: No, I am not a Nazi. The Nazis made it illegal to study intelligence differences because Jews outscored the Aryans. Sure they misused science in other ways. But that some people misuse science and turn it into political pseudo-science isn’t a reason to suppress the spread of legitimate information.

The second question I expect is that Jews aren’t a race or an ethnicity, but a religious group. This is false. Jews are both, but because the religious group and the ethnic group overlap more than 90% of the time, many English-speakers do not realize that there is a difference. In the Hebrew language, however, there are two words for it: ivri (Hebrew), meaning ethnic Jew and yehud (Jew), meaning a believer in Judaism. For obvious reasons, I will be concerned with Jews as an ethnicity rather than religion.