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mtDNA in Great Britain March 9, 2009

Posted by ethnicgenome in United Kingdom.
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British mtDNA haplogroups are:

H – 55
J – 15
T – 7
U – 7
K – 3

The predominance of H haplogroup (mtDNA) is common around Europe and the Near East. But J is more common on the British Isles than elsewhere. It is generally about 2% of the European population. Among the British (the English, the Scots, the Welch and the Irish), there is a much higher amount of J.

J is also common in the Near East in similar numbers as in Britain.

As with all haplogroups, it is further split. I will go down one level only to avoid confusing everyone. J1 is spread around Europe, while J2 is mostly concentrated around the Mediterranean. (This is not to be confused with Y-DNA haplogroups by the same name where J2 is also concentrated around the Mediterranean, but J1 is largely an Arab haplogroup.)

All the British ethnicities are overwhelmingly J1 and not J2.

There are some differences however between the native Britons and the Anglo-Saxons who invaded from German regions near Netherlands. British Celts do show some distinction from continental Europeans, while the English show a similarity to West Europeans.

The distinctions here are within the haplogroups.

These are obviously not racial differences, but rather ethnic ones.


European Genetic Admixtures: Y-DNA March 5, 2009

Posted by ethnicgenome in Caucasians.
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This post is a continuation of “Mapping out the borders of whiteness“. If you haven’t read it, you probably should to understand this more clearly here.

The following classifications aren’t hard facts. A scientist would frankly laugh at them because all of these haplogroups appear among all European and Near Eastern peoples.

For example, R1b is generally thought of as West European where 60-90% of people belong to this haplogroup. In Central Europe (Germany, Czech Republic, continental Italy) the frequency is about 40%.

But we see the same ~40% frequency of R1b among Armenians, Ossetians and Jordanians in the Dead Sea region, which is higher than among Swedes, Norwegians and Sicilians.

It also present in significant numbers throughout the Near East (from 4% in UAE to 16% in Turkey) and Eastern Europe (from 2% among Ukrainians to 15% among Bulgarians).

As I’ve said before, haplogroups can be split further and are somewhat different from region to region. But the differences aren’t radically different and differences within a haplogroup are frankly still small enough to be placed in the same haplogroup.

With that said, you can classify certain haplogroups as being most common in particular regions. That is what the following will attempt to do.


R1b: Western Europe (Celtic, Basque, Italic, Frisian, Saxon)
R1a: Eastern Europe (Slavic, Aryan)
I1: Northern Europe (Germanic, Scandinavian)
I2a: Southern Slavic (Balkans and southwestern Ukraine. I2a1 is also present in large numbers in Sardinia, Basques.)
I2b: Western Europe (Germany, Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium and England)


J1: Arabs, Jews.
J2: Spanish, Italian, Sicilian, Greek, Anatolian Turkish, Jewish, and some French and Portuguese.
T: Small haplogroup that is most present among Egyptians, Iraqis, Serbs and the Spanish. Despite small presence anywhere and especially in Europe, it was the haplogroup of President Thomas Jefferson, Russia’s Czar Nicholas II and several English royals.
G: Most present in Caucasus (southern Russia), which is culturally Middle Eastern. About 60% of Ossetians; 30% of Georgians, Kabardinians and Balkarians.
E1b1b: North Africa, Jews and southern Europe in the same regions as J2, but especially Greece and Serbia at 27% and 24%. (Most of E haplogroup migrated back from the Near East to Africa, but E1b1b stayed above Sahara and spread into Europe. It is now the most common of Mediterranean haplogroups among most European ethnicities.)


N: First appeared in Southeast Asia. Its highest frequency occurs among the Finnic and Baltic peoples of northern and eastern Europe, the Ob-Ugric and Northern Samoyedic peoples of western Siberia, and the Siberian Turkic-speaking Yakuts.

Q: It is the dominant haplogroup among Native Americans. Also highly present among some Siberian Mongoloids like the Kets. (Their language has been linked to the Na-Dene languages among Indians in Western Canada and Alaska.)

European populations have only small traces of sub-Saharan haplogroups, so I will not include them here.

For simplicity’s sake, let’s combine haplogroups into European, Mediterranean/Middle Eastern and Asian/Amerindian.

The most European people are, not surprisingly, those on the British islands, particularly the Scots. They are 95% European, 4.5% Mediterranean and 0.5% non-white. The English are 92% – 7.5% – 0.5%. The Welch are 91.5% – 8.5% – 0%.

A little more surprising is the near complete lack of non-European genes among the Poles who are 94.5% – 5.5% – 0%.

This is somewhat surprising because the people with the most non-Caucasian Y-DNA are those around Poland. Russia is 67.5% – 8% – 24.5%. Estonia is 58.5% – 7.5% – 34.5%. Latvia is 59% – 1.5% – 39.5%. Lithuania is 56% – 1.5% – 42.5%.

And the Finns are the only people in Europe or the Near East who are mostly non-Caucasian at 40% – 1% – 59%. In fact, the Finns have so much non-Caucasian DNA that they could be classified as non-white at first look. But as I explained, their non-white Y-DNA is located mostly in the northern half of the country, so the south should be regarded as white and the north as mixed race.

Sweden has a lot less non-Caucasian Y-DNA at 88.5% – 2.5% – 7.5%.

The most Mediterranean/Middle Eastern people are the Greeks at 39.5% – 60.5% – 0%. Italy is 58% – 42% – 0 %. We also see a strong Mediterranean/Middle Eastern genetic influence in the Balkans and southeast Europe. Serbia is 57% – 43% – 0% and Hungary is 65.5% – 31% – 3.5%, while the Muslim Albania is 48% – 52% – 0%.

Interestingly, Portugal has a lot more J2 and E1b1b than Spain (but on the mtDNA side, Spain has the most non-Caucausian DNA at 23%). Portugal is 61.5% – 38.5% – 0%, while Spain is 79% – 14% – 0%.

Similarly interesting is the much higher presence of Mediterranean/Middle Eastern haplogroups among the Austrians (69% – 30% – 1%) than among the Germans (85.5% – 13.5% – 1%). The French are somewhere between them at 80% – 20% – 0%.

* I will do another post soon on the mtDNA, which is a bit more complicated for Caucasians than Y-DNA.