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The Race of Sephardic Jews March 4, 2009

Posted by ethnicgenome in Genetics (General), Jews.
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There are a lot of people interested in race issues who suggest that Sephardic Jews are not-white. They do so without any understanding of Sephardic DNA. In fact, it is this kind of talk that leads Noel Ignatiev to write books about the Irish becoming white and that being white has nothing to do with biology, but is instead a political category of people we like and people we dislike. Either a race is to be defined based on genetic information or race is a social construct that doesn’t exist. Inadvertently, these “race realists” are actually promoting the idea that race is nothing more than a political classification.

There is simply no genetic basis for their claim. There is just an emotional desire to classify those we like at the moment as an “in-group” and others as an “out-group”.

Race is determined by genetic clusters.

Looking at haplogroups, we find the same mtDNA (materinal) haplogroups in both Europe and the Middle East with similar distribution patterns. H is most common haplogroup in Europe. It’s a less common in the Near East, but is still the most common one there as well. When it appears in lesser numbers, it is “replaced” by a higher distribution of other haplogroups which are also very common in Europe and not found anywhere else outside Europe and the Middle East.

The exception here are the Arabs because 38% of their mtDNA comes from haplogroups outside those common among whites, so they should be classified as mixed race people. But let me repeat it once more: this is done not because of the slight variations within Caucasian haplogroups, but because of such a significant outside gene flow into Arab communities.

In Y-DNA, the haplogroups do tend to bunch up in certain parts of Europe, but again, southern Europe (J2) is more like the Near East (J1) than to I and R haplogroups in other parts of Europe. (additionally, the mostly East European I is closer to the mostly Mediterranean J than to the mostly West European R.)

Were the Near East something other than white, then so too should be the Roman Empire and Ancient Greece (both known to be J2), as well as parts of Portugal, Spain, France, Serbia, Bulgaria, and so on. Needless to say that would be revolutionary conclusion.

Those Middle Easterners, therefore, who do not have significant amounts of DNA outside the Caucasian haplogroups should be classified together with other whites.

It is only a completely uneducated person who is governed by his emotions and not by facts who would classify two people with, for instance, H1 haplogroup mtDNA and R1b haplogroup Y-DNA, as members of separate races. Even if H haplogroup in Europe and in the Near East have slight variations, and they do, these variations pale in comparison to the differences with haplogroups common among blacks, Orientals, Amerindians, native Australians.

An ethnicity is classified within a particular race based on which haplogroups they belong to.

When it comes to the Y-DNA, the profile of most Sephardic Jews is very similar to that of Ashkenazi Jews and other Mediterranean Europeans.

Depending on a study, 30%-40% of Sephardim are in haplogroup J (according to Wikipedia, 12% J1 and 29% J2) and another 30% in haplogroup R1b (most common in Portugal and Spain). About 11.5% are haplogroup I, a northern European group. And a small amount is the mostly East European and Scandinavian R1a.

Another 19% is haplogroup E1b1b which is observed in significant frequencies in Europe and western Asia. It is particularly common in southern Europe and the Balkans. We find it in both northern and southern Italy, all of Spain and Greece, and southern France, as well as in smaller amounts all throughout Europe as far north as the Scandinavia.

Haplogroup E probably originated in the Near East, but most of it migrated back into Africa, both north and south of Sahara. E1b1b, however, stayed in the Near East or migrated into Europe. Rather than being an African influence onto the Middle East, it is the opposite: E is the Middle Eastern influence on Africa.

According to Wikipedia, “Most Sub-Saharan Africans belong to subclades of E other than E1b1b, while most non-Africans who belong to haplogroup E belong to its E1b1b subclade.” (Citing Fulvio Cruciani et al, Phylogeographic Analysis of Haplogroup E1b1b (E-M215) Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out Of Africa, Am. J. Hum. Genet, p. 74)

We therefore see the Sephardic Y-DNA profile to be very similar to Europeans along the Mediterranean, as well as to the Ashkenazim. The only major difference with the Ashkenazim is that rather than having about a third of their Y-DNA in haplogroup R1b (Western Europe), the Ashkenazim are about evenly split between R1b and R1a (Eastern Europe and Scandinavia).

This difference hardly seems significant enough to classify Sephardim and Ashkenazim as different races. Most West Europeans would presumably be very surprised if they were told that having more of their (R1b) than East European (R1a) Y-DNA makes someone non-white.

But what about the mtDNA.

Here the differences between Sephardim and Europeans are even less stark.

The primary Caucasoid mtDNA haplogroups are H, J, K, T, V and U (all of which derived from haplogroup R), as well as I, W and X. These are relatively evenly split throughout Europe and the Near East. Though some haplogroups are more (or less) common among certain ethnicities, the differences are merely in proportion of the same mtDNA haplogroups.

Studies of Sephardic mtDNA conducted among several communities revealed that most to have Caucasian mtDNA. We may discuss the proportions of various haplogroups, but that they are the same haplogroups is an established fact.

The obvious exceptions are Ethiopian and Indian Jews, who are almost definitely just converts to Judaism. Ethiopian Jews have the same profile as other Ethiopians. Indian Jews have a small amount of H and U haplogroups, which may be from the original Jews who converted these Indians to Judaism.

Yemenites also seem to be a mix of various groups, including Negroids. Over 8% are part of the predominantly African L haplogroup, which explains their darker skin and often times curly hair.

While the Yemenites are recognized as Sephardic Jews, neither Indians nor Ethiopians would normally be classified as such, except by the people who use the term Sephardic to mean any non-Ashkenazi Jew.

The other traditionally Sephardic-Mizrahi groups belong to the same haplogroups as do the Europeans (with no more than usual non-Caucasian gene flow).

Azerbaijani Jews are predominantly (59%) haplogroup J, which is evenly spread in same numbers in both Europe (12%) and the Near East (11%).

Georgian Jews are predominantly (58%) part of haplogroup HV, which originated in southern Italy and now common in Western Europe. It is the ancestor haplogroup of H (and also V), which is the most common one among Europeans.

Iranian Jews are more diverse in their genetic makeup, but it is still Caucasian, with H, J, U and T being the most common groups.

Iraqi Jews are similar, but have 7.4% of their population in the W haplogroup. This is not uncommon for Europeans either, however, despite the fact that this haplogroup is more common in South Asia.

Libyan and Turkish Jews are mostly H and X haplogroups. X is present in Europe so much that Bryan Sykes included it as one of the 7 Daughters of Eve for the white race. It is not a strictly white haplogroup, however, and is found in Asia as well as in the Americas. The founders of the group were likely Israeli Druze.

Moroccan Jews show high frequency of H, just as Europeans, though in slightly lower numbers.

Of course all of these haplogroups could be further subdivided and people belonging to the same haplogroup could look somewhat different.

But if race is to be defined as by genetic clusters, then it would only make sense that people in the same haplogroups are part of the same race. After all, if I and R Y-DNA haplogroups are part of the same race, it’s hard to argue that J1 and J2 are different races.

Sephardim are not the same kind of “white” as Hungarians or Irishmen. But Hungarians and Irishmen themselves aren’t identical either.

The lack of significant non-Caucasian haplogroups makes people white. By that standard, Sephardim are white.


Israeli IQ March 1, 2009

Posted by ethnicgenome in Intelligence (General), Jews.
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Try to solve this math problem: (100+100+100+100+92)/5. You would think the answer would be 98.4. But not according to Richard Lynn who counted this to be 94.

It has been widely cited on the internet that Israel’s average IQ is only 94. But how did Prof. Lynn arrive at the figure?

First, he threw out three tests showing Israelis averaging 100. Then he took the two remaining tests and shaved off two points, even though most nations got additional points due to the Flynn Effect and other factors.

The reality is that he should’ve dumped the test that showed that Israelis scored only 92 on a test. It is what statistians call an outlier. In statistics, an outlier is an observation that is numerically distant from the rest of the data and for that reason it is generally discarded. For instance, if all the opinion polls showed Barack Obama winning by 5% and one poll showed McCain up 4%, you would discard the pro-McCain poll as an aberration.

Similarly if 4 out of 5 tests of Israelis show an IQ score of 100 and one is significantly below that, that lone test should be discarded.

Instead, Lynn turned 92 into 90 and 100 into 98, discarded three others tests, and came up with a very low number of 94. It is mind-boggling to think that when 4 out of 5 tests give an IQ score of 100, he somehow manages to give Israel an average score of 94!

Lynn also gives the lowest IQ estimate (107) of anyone for Ashkenazi Jews living in the United States.

Now let’s look at the data.

A test of Israeli school children resulted in an average IQ of 100. The Israeli military conducted two tests, one of which was a highly g-loaded adaptation of the Raven’s Matrices, both showing soldiers with an IQ of 100. [S. Kaniel and S. Fisherman, “Level of Performance and Distribution of Errors in the Progressive Matrices Test: A Comparison of Ethiopian Immigrant and Native Israeli Adolescents,” International Journal of Psychology, vol.26, 1991, pp.25-33; J.R. Flynn, “Israeli Military IQ Tests: Gender Differences Small; IQ Gains Large,” Journal of Biosocial Science, vol.30, 1998, pp.541-553.]

In Israel, almost all Jews – male and female – are drafted into the military, so it is not a specially selected group.

At the time when these IQ tests were conducted, a majority of Israeli Jews were Sephardic who score about 14 points less than Ashkenazic Israelis. All the IQ tests were conducted prior to the arrival of a million mostly-Russian Ashkenazi Jews after the fall of the Soviet Union. At the time, less than 30% were full-bloodied Ashkenazim without any Sephardic ancestry. More than 70% of Israelis were Arabs, Sephardim or a mix of Sepharim and Ashkenazim. After the wave of Russian immigration, about 35% of Israelis are Ashkenazim without any Sephardi ancestry.

If you count anyone who self-identified as Ashkenazi as such, their average IQ would be about 107-110. [If the average IQ is 100, and Ashkenazim outscore the Sepharim by 14 points, and the two populations are equal in size, then Ashkenazim must score 107 and Sephardim 93. However, since Sephardic population was greater than Ashkenazi at the time of these tests, the former’s IQ must be somewhat higher than 107.]

But why is the Israeli Ashkenazi IQ lower than the American Ashkenazi IQ of 113-115?

Because, as noted, many of the self-identified Israeli Ashkenazim are actually half or at least a quarter Sephardic. Just take a look at the average Israeli Ashkenazi – many are clearly partly Sephardic. Living in a country where most of the population belongs to a different group, and where you feel no compulsion not to marry that group will result in significant intermarriage.

With the arrival of a million Ashkenazim from Russia, one can be pretty certain that the average Israeli Ashkenazi IQ has temporarily gone up because Russians rarely intermarried with Sephardim.

But as Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jews in Israel intermarry, the former will raise their average and the latter will drop.

Finally, the idea of Israel having a low IQ is inconsistent with other facts. In proportion to its population, Israel has the largest number of startup companies in the world. In absolute terms, Israel has the second largest number of startup companies (3,500) after the United States, an amazing feat considering that several European countries have a population ten to fifteen times that of Israel, and the high IQ China has 200 times as many people.

Israel is third in the world in college degrees and first in graduate degrees. Israel has the world’s second highest per capita rate of publishing new books and has more museums per capita than any other country, as well as the highest percentage of home computers. Israel produces more scientific papers per capita than any other nation by a large margin.

None of these facts are consistent with Lynn’s claim of a low Israeli IQ.