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Are all Ashkenazim partly Sephardi? April 20, 2009

Posted by ethnicgenome in Jews.
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I theorized before that Ashkenazi Jews must be related to the original Sephardim. People who don’t know Jewish history think of the Sephardim as Jews from Islamic countries. That is wrong. Those Jews are Mizrachi Jews who merely adopted Sephardic traditions. The real Sephardic Jews are West Europeans, and the Ashkenazim are Central and East Europeans (from Germany to Russia).

When Sephardic Jews were expelled from Spain and Portugal, they went to Turkey and Holland. There are still a lot of Sephardim in Turkey, but what happened to all the Dutch Jews like the great philosopher Benedict de Spinoza?

Ashkenazi Jews originated on the Rhine River, somewhere near Cologne and Düsseldorf. The region is right next to Holland, so it’s impossible that the two communities wouldn’t intermarry with each other.

The sudden disappearance of Sephardic Jews in Holland and the simultaneous skyrocketing of the nearby Ashkenazi population could be a coincidence, but that’s far-fetched. Why would the Dutch Jews disappear? Do we really think that the Rhine Jews all had historically unheard of number of children per woman to grow their population so quickly?

It is more likely that the two communities just united.

Take a look at this map from wikipedia (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/e/e3/Cohanim_DNA_migration_.jpg)

It shows Jews migrating to Spain and Portugal, then from there into Central and Eastern Europe. In Iberia, there were no Ashkenazim. In Central and Eastern Europe, there were no Sephardim. If family was in Spain first, then went to Poland, then they must’ve started out as Sephardim and then became Ashkenazim. Not as a matter of genetics, but as a matter of religious tradition.

Today we think of Mizrachi Jews as Sephardim because they adopted their religious traditions. But genetically, Ashkenazi Jews must have more Sephardic blood than do Mizrachi Jews. This is because both Sephardim and Ashkenazim were European Jews who lived right next to each other, while the Mizrachi were in the far-away Middle East and Central Asia.

The last names of people who originated from Iberia are some of the more common Ashkenazi names: Kaplan, Garfinkel, Mazer, Katz, Kohn, Kovacs, Cowan, Coyne, Kahan, Kagan, Cohen, Shapiro. Many of these names originated when the families were already in Central and Eastern Europe (or the British Isles), but the family history lays with Portuguese and Spanish Sephardim.

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Are Jews White? April 10, 2009

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SA Sucks has a blog today saying that Jews aren’t white based on the genetic maps created by GNXP at http://scienceblogs.com/gnxp/2009/01/how_ashkenazi_jewish_are_you.php.

The information is highly deceptive because the whole human gene pool doesn’t appear there.

Where Jews might be away from others by 0.01 or 0.02, non-whites would be away by several full points.

And why stop where at this map?

The brown color are Americans who aren’t one ethnicity, but rather dozens of different white ethnics. But look at the bottom of this map.

Italians and Basques also don’t overlap. Maybe we should exclude Italians? (Almost nobody overlaps, if you include all the ethnic groups.) This is especially because they too, like Jews, are part of the J Y-DNA haplogroup.

Or maybe we should just stop with Russians, who do not overlap with the Basques? Or consider the gap from Sardinians to Jews and to Orcadians. Sardinians are much, much closer to the Jews than to Orcadians. To classify them as separate race is not only unscientific, it’s anti-scientific.

Notice also that Jews are very close to Europeans and there’s some overlap with American whites, who are actually just European-descended whites, not all whites. There’s no overlap with the Arabs.

But the Arabs, from the science point of view, are also white. Their support for terror does not change the fact that their haplogroups on the mt-DNA side are the same as those of Europe.

To be part of a different race, at the very least a ethnic group must be part of a different race. The haplogroup overlap is so extensive that to argue that people of the same haplogroup are part of different races proves the Left to be correct: race is a social construct. Either we go with biology or race is a social construct where we choose who’s white and who isn’t based on how much we like them.

The Arab Y-DNA is also similar to that of Europeans. Not only do they belong to the same J haplogroup as southern Europeans, but J is actually closer to I (northern Europe) than the West European R-haplogroup.

West European R is actually grouped together with Asian haplogroups, Q, N and O: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_I_(Y-DNA)

An argument could legitimately be made that J is “more Caucasian” than R. You can have no doubt that this is how white nationalists would interpret things if J instead of R was grouped with Asians.

I don’t subscribe to that line of reasoning, but R-haplogroup people should really be careful when they judge who’s white and who’s not because scientifically-speaking they are the closest ones to being non-white.

I won’t get into the politics of that blog except to say that if Jews dominated the Soviet Union, then why is it that the list of Jews in power always ends around 1937, during Stalinist purges?

Nor was it the Jews who sponsored the revolution, it was the Germans in hopes of winning World War I. Germany promoted Jewish rights for the same reason the US promotes Women’s Rights around the world, so they helped put Jews in power in 1917. If this was a conspiracy, it was a German Conspiracy.

Jews dominated Russian politics in the 1920s because the former elites were driven out by German-sponsored Communists, and what was left were illiterates with drinking problems. Even prior to the Communist take-over, over 95% of Russians were illiterate and much of the intellectual elite fled when Lenin took over. Russia is also famous for its drinking problem: more vodka is consumed there than in the rest of the world combined.

The Jews were the only ones who were at least somewhat educated and who didn’t spend their days drinking. So it is hardly surprising that they took positions of influence. Who else was supposed to run factories and government agencies?

As soon as a new generation of Russians got educated, Stalin killed all the Jews in power, and hundreds of thousands of others, and the Jews became the nation’s whipping boys.

Anyone with even a cursory knowledge of Soviet politics should know that after 1937 Jews were the lowest caste in the country. It was Jews who organized anti-Soviet demonstrations and it was Jews who promoted capitalist reforms in the Soviet Union.

That was more than I intended to say about the politics of his blog, but needless to say that he should do his research not just on stormfront.

Ashkenazi, Mizrahi, Arab IQ in Israel March 26, 2009

Posted by ethnicgenome in Jews.
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From Sleep in response to my post on Israeli achievements and IQ:

“Im curious. What do you think the average intelligence might be of the following groups:

Jews in Israel of European origin (Ash/Seph or other)
Mizrahi Jews
Palestinian Arabs”

ARABS:

Let’s compare them to other Arab states. Egypt is 83. Lebanon is 86. Morocco is 85. Iraq is 87. Qatar is 78. That seems to be the Arab range: 78-87. I haven’t seen any Arab countries score in the 90s and only Qatar is in the 70s. The average of the 5 Arab countries listed by IQ and the Wealth of Nations is 83.8, so the Palestinians are probably around 85. Whether it’s a couple points more or less is irrelevant, just a margin of error, and at the same time, I doubt that they are above 90 because no other Arab country is.

ASHKENAZIM

The pure-blooded Ashkenazim score probably the same as they do elsewhere 112-115.

However, many Israelis identifying as Ashkenazi are half or at least a quarter Mizrahi. I would estimate that if you count anyone who self-identified as Ashkenazi, regardless of their ancestral mix, the Israeli “Ashkenazism” would be 108-110.

MIZRAHIM (Jews from Muslim nations who adopted the Sephardic religious traditions)

It is established that they score about a standard deviation lower than that of the Ashkenazi Jews. They also outscored their Arab neighbors, had more intellectually challenging jobs, and earned more money.

One test showed a gap of 14 points between the Ashkenazim and the Mizrahim in Israel. Note that the description is one of self-definition, so many of the Sephardim are partly Ashkenazi and the reverse.

My estimate for people of exclusively Mizrahi background would be about 90. If you include everyone who self-defines as Mizrahi, it would probably be about 95.

So if all Ashnkezim are 109 and the gap is 14 points, then the average self-defined Mizrahi is 95, which also coincides with other estimates (Israeli Ashkenazim being as smart as Ashkenazim elsewhere and Mizrahi being a little above the Arab average).

The Jewish average therefore becomes 102.

The average for all Israelis, including the Arabs would therefore become 99.

Note that this is a confusing and non-scientific way of doing it.

The mixed Ashkenazi-Mizrahi people shouldn’t be classified genetically as they choose, but instead should be part of the same group.

If you take them out, the gap between them grows from about 15 points to about 20-25, whereas the mixed Ashkenazi-Mizrahi people would average about 100.

The Israeli job market and education rates reflect it.

More on Israeli IQ and Intellectual Accomplishments March 23, 2009

Posted by ethnicgenome in Jews.
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I wrote before that the estimation that Israel’s IQ is 94 is wrong.

Here’s a video on Israeli achievements. If IQ tests show Israel having a low IQ, it must be a bad test. This may sound really bad, but what I mean is that if a nation can have so many intellectual achievements, it cannot have a low average IQ. But as I argued before, Israel does not have a low IQ, Prof. Lynn just decided to discard the three tests with the highest results and then used two other tests from which he subtracted 2 points.

According to this video, Israel has:

  • The most patents per capita;
  • The most engineers and scientists per capita;
  • The most scientific papers per capita;
  • The second highest book publishing per capita;
  • The most museums per capita;
  • The highest concentration of high-tech companies per capita and second highest in total numbers;
  • One of only 8 nations with a space program;
  • Israel has the world’s largest research center;
  • The most per capita and third overall after US and Canada among companies traded on Wall Street.

Israelis developed the first cell phone, voicemail, text messaging, ICQ instant messangers, network firewalls, Intel Centrino and Pentium 4, the first anti-virus software, the first solar power plant. (A whole bunch of other stuff like phenomenal tanks and nuclear weapons. They are #3 in college degrees and #1 in graduate degrees.)

If you can do all that, how can you possibly have a low IQ? Such claims, while popular in certain corners (the anti-IQ left and the antisemites), are just not credible.

Prof. Lynn should’ve discarded the lone test that showed Israelis with an IQ under 100 (it had an average score of 92) as an outlier. Instead, he discarded three tests showing Israel averaging triple digits, even when including the Arabs and the Sephardim, and then subtracted 2 more points. Such creative math may convince the uninformed, but those who are aware of the above list of Israeli intellectual accomplishments will have trouble believing that it is a low IQ nation.

The Race of Sephardic Jews March 4, 2009

Posted by ethnicgenome in Genetics (General), Jews.
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There are a lot of people interested in race issues who suggest that Sephardic Jews are not-white. They do so without any understanding of Sephardic DNA. In fact, it is this kind of talk that leads Noel Ignatiev to write books about the Irish becoming white and that being white has nothing to do with biology, but is instead a political category of people we like and people we dislike. Either a race is to be defined based on genetic information or race is a social construct that doesn’t exist. Inadvertently, these “race realists” are actually promoting the idea that race is nothing more than a political classification.

There is simply no genetic basis for their claim. There is just an emotional desire to classify those we like at the moment as an “in-group” and others as an “out-group”.

Race is determined by genetic clusters.

Looking at haplogroups, we find the same mtDNA (materinal) haplogroups in both Europe and the Middle East with similar distribution patterns. H is most common haplogroup in Europe. It’s a less common in the Near East, but is still the most common one there as well. When it appears in lesser numbers, it is “replaced” by a higher distribution of other haplogroups which are also very common in Europe and not found anywhere else outside Europe and the Middle East.

The exception here are the Arabs because 38% of their mtDNA comes from haplogroups outside those common among whites, so they should be classified as mixed race people. But let me repeat it once more: this is done not because of the slight variations within Caucasian haplogroups, but because of such a significant outside gene flow into Arab communities.

In Y-DNA, the haplogroups do tend to bunch up in certain parts of Europe, but again, southern Europe (J2) is more like the Near East (J1) than to I and R haplogroups in other parts of Europe. (additionally, the mostly East European I is closer to the mostly Mediterranean J than to the mostly West European R.)

Were the Near East something other than white, then so too should be the Roman Empire and Ancient Greece (both known to be J2), as well as parts of Portugal, Spain, France, Serbia, Bulgaria, and so on. Needless to say that would be revolutionary conclusion.

Those Middle Easterners, therefore, who do not have significant amounts of DNA outside the Caucasian haplogroups should be classified together with other whites.

It is only a completely uneducated person who is governed by his emotions and not by facts who would classify two people with, for instance, H1 haplogroup mtDNA and R1b haplogroup Y-DNA, as members of separate races. Even if H haplogroup in Europe and in the Near East have slight variations, and they do, these variations pale in comparison to the differences with haplogroups common among blacks, Orientals, Amerindians, native Australians.

An ethnicity is classified within a particular race based on which haplogroups they belong to.

When it comes to the Y-DNA, the profile of most Sephardic Jews is very similar to that of Ashkenazi Jews and other Mediterranean Europeans.

Depending on a study, 30%-40% of Sephardim are in haplogroup J (according to Wikipedia, 12% J1 and 29% J2) and another 30% in haplogroup R1b (most common in Portugal and Spain). About 11.5% are haplogroup I, a northern European group. And a small amount is the mostly East European and Scandinavian R1a.

Another 19% is haplogroup E1b1b which is observed in significant frequencies in Europe and western Asia. It is particularly common in southern Europe and the Balkans. We find it in both northern and southern Italy, all of Spain and Greece, and southern France, as well as in smaller amounts all throughout Europe as far north as the Scandinavia.

Haplogroup E probably originated in the Near East, but most of it migrated back into Africa, both north and south of Sahara. E1b1b, however, stayed in the Near East or migrated into Europe. Rather than being an African influence onto the Middle East, it is the opposite: E is the Middle Eastern influence on Africa.

According to Wikipedia, “Most Sub-Saharan Africans belong to subclades of E other than E1b1b, while most non-Africans who belong to haplogroup E belong to its E1b1b subclade.” (Citing Fulvio Cruciani et al, Phylogeographic Analysis of Haplogroup E1b1b (E-M215) Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out Of Africa, Am. J. Hum. Genet, p. 74)

We therefore see the Sephardic Y-DNA profile to be very similar to Europeans along the Mediterranean, as well as to the Ashkenazim. The only major difference with the Ashkenazim is that rather than having about a third of their Y-DNA in haplogroup R1b (Western Europe), the Ashkenazim are about evenly split between R1b and R1a (Eastern Europe and Scandinavia).

This difference hardly seems significant enough to classify Sephardim and Ashkenazim as different races. Most West Europeans would presumably be very surprised if they were told that having more of their (R1b) than East European (R1a) Y-DNA makes someone non-white.

But what about the mtDNA.

Here the differences between Sephardim and Europeans are even less stark.

The primary Caucasoid mtDNA haplogroups are H, J, K, T, V and U (all of which derived from haplogroup R), as well as I, W and X. These are relatively evenly split throughout Europe and the Near East. Though some haplogroups are more (or less) common among certain ethnicities, the differences are merely in proportion of the same mtDNA haplogroups.

Studies of Sephardic mtDNA conducted among several communities revealed that most to have Caucasian mtDNA. We may discuss the proportions of various haplogroups, but that they are the same haplogroups is an established fact.

The obvious exceptions are Ethiopian and Indian Jews, who are almost definitely just converts to Judaism. Ethiopian Jews have the same profile as other Ethiopians. Indian Jews have a small amount of H and U haplogroups, which may be from the original Jews who converted these Indians to Judaism.

Yemenites also seem to be a mix of various groups, including Negroids. Over 8% are part of the predominantly African L haplogroup, which explains their darker skin and often times curly hair.

While the Yemenites are recognized as Sephardic Jews, neither Indians nor Ethiopians would normally be classified as such, except by the people who use the term Sephardic to mean any non-Ashkenazi Jew.

The other traditionally Sephardic-Mizrahi groups belong to the same haplogroups as do the Europeans (with no more than usual non-Caucasian gene flow).

Azerbaijani Jews are predominantly (59%) haplogroup J, which is evenly spread in same numbers in both Europe (12%) and the Near East (11%).

Georgian Jews are predominantly (58%) part of haplogroup HV, which originated in southern Italy and now common in Western Europe. It is the ancestor haplogroup of H (and also V), which is the most common one among Europeans.

Iranian Jews are more diverse in their genetic makeup, but it is still Caucasian, with H, J, U and T being the most common groups.

Iraqi Jews are similar, but have 7.4% of their population in the W haplogroup. This is not uncommon for Europeans either, however, despite the fact that this haplogroup is more common in South Asia.

Libyan and Turkish Jews are mostly H and X haplogroups. X is present in Europe so much that Bryan Sykes included it as one of the 7 Daughters of Eve for the white race. It is not a strictly white haplogroup, however, and is found in Asia as well as in the Americas. The founders of the group were likely Israeli Druze.

Moroccan Jews show high frequency of H, just as Europeans, though in slightly lower numbers.

Of course all of these haplogroups could be further subdivided and people belonging to the same haplogroup could look somewhat different.

But if race is to be defined as by genetic clusters, then it would only make sense that people in the same haplogroups are part of the same race. After all, if I and R Y-DNA haplogroups are part of the same race, it’s hard to argue that J1 and J2 are different races.

Sephardim are not the same kind of “white” as Hungarians or Irishmen. But Hungarians and Irishmen themselves aren’t identical either.

The lack of significant non-Caucasian haplogroups makes people white. By that standard, Sephardim are white.

Israeli IQ March 1, 2009

Posted by ethnicgenome in Intelligence (General), Jews.
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Try to solve this math problem: (100+100+100+100+92)/5. You would think the answer would be 98.4. But not according to Richard Lynn who counted this to be 94.

It has been widely cited on the internet that Israel’s average IQ is only 94. But how did Prof. Lynn arrive at the figure?

First, he threw out three tests showing Israelis averaging 100. Then he took the two remaining tests and shaved off two points, even though most nations got additional points due to the Flynn Effect and other factors.

The reality is that he should’ve dumped the test that showed that Israelis scored only 92 on a test. It is what statistians call an outlier. In statistics, an outlier is an observation that is numerically distant from the rest of the data and for that reason it is generally discarded. For instance, if all the opinion polls showed Barack Obama winning by 5% and one poll showed McCain up 4%, you would discard the pro-McCain poll as an aberration.

Similarly if 4 out of 5 tests of Israelis show an IQ score of 100 and one is significantly below that, that lone test should be discarded.

Instead, Lynn turned 92 into 90 and 100 into 98, discarded three others tests, and came up with a very low number of 94. It is mind-boggling to think that when 4 out of 5 tests give an IQ score of 100, he somehow manages to give Israel an average score of 94!

Lynn also gives the lowest IQ estimate (107) of anyone for Ashkenazi Jews living in the United States.

Now let’s look at the data.

A test of Israeli school children resulted in an average IQ of 100. The Israeli military conducted two tests, one of which was a highly g-loaded adaptation of the Raven’s Matrices, both showing soldiers with an IQ of 100. [S. Kaniel and S. Fisherman, “Level of Performance and Distribution of Errors in the Progressive Matrices Test: A Comparison of Ethiopian Immigrant and Native Israeli Adolescents,” International Journal of Psychology, vol.26, 1991, pp.25-33; J.R. Flynn, “Israeli Military IQ Tests: Gender Differences Small; IQ Gains Large,” Journal of Biosocial Science, vol.30, 1998, pp.541-553.]

In Israel, almost all Jews – male and female – are drafted into the military, so it is not a specially selected group.

At the time when these IQ tests were conducted, a majority of Israeli Jews were Sephardic who score about 14 points less than Ashkenazic Israelis. All the IQ tests were conducted prior to the arrival of a million mostly-Russian Ashkenazi Jews after the fall of the Soviet Union. At the time, less than 30% were full-bloodied Ashkenazim without any Sephardic ancestry. More than 70% of Israelis were Arabs, Sephardim or a mix of Sepharim and Ashkenazim. After the wave of Russian immigration, about 35% of Israelis are Ashkenazim without any Sephardi ancestry.

If you count anyone who self-identified as Ashkenazi as such, their average IQ would be about 107-110. [If the average IQ is 100, and Ashkenazim outscore the Sepharim by 14 points, and the two populations are equal in size, then Ashkenazim must score 107 and Sephardim 93. However, since Sephardic population was greater than Ashkenazi at the time of these tests, the former’s IQ must be somewhat higher than 107.]

But why is the Israeli Ashkenazi IQ lower than the American Ashkenazi IQ of 113-115?

Because, as noted, many of the self-identified Israeli Ashkenazim are actually half or at least a quarter Sephardic. Just take a look at the average Israeli Ashkenazi – many are clearly partly Sephardic. Living in a country where most of the population belongs to a different group, and where you feel no compulsion not to marry that group will result in significant intermarriage.

With the arrival of a million Ashkenazim from Russia, one can be pretty certain that the average Israeli Ashkenazi IQ has temporarily gone up because Russians rarely intermarried with Sephardim.

But as Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jews in Israel intermarry, the former will raise their average and the latter will drop.

Finally, the idea of Israel having a low IQ is inconsistent with other facts. In proportion to its population, Israel has the largest number of startup companies in the world. In absolute terms, Israel has the second largest number of startup companies (3,500) after the United States, an amazing feat considering that several European countries have a population ten to fifteen times that of Israel, and the high IQ China has 200 times as many people.

Israel is third in the world in college degrees and first in graduate degrees. Israel has the world’s second highest per capita rate of publishing new books and has more museums per capita than any other country, as well as the highest percentage of home computers. Israel produces more scientific papers per capita than any other nation by a large margin.

None of these facts are consistent with Lynn’s claim of a low Israeli IQ.

Jewish IQ February 28, 2009

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Jewish IQ is usually stated to be one standard deviation above that of Gentile whites, which is about 115. Some estimates are a little lower, some a little higher.

This is Half Sigma‘s breakdown of what this would mean in different IQ groups.

The real breakdown is actually a little different because Jews have a much wider range than whites Gentiles (who in turn have a wider range than Asians). Jews, despite having a higher average IQ, are also more likely than European-Americans to score at the lower end. But in the genius range, they are even more dominant. In the 1950s, New York City conducted a study which sought to find teenagers with IQ of 170 or above. Out of 28 students they found, 24 were Jewish.

A group with a narrow range like the Asians may have a high average IQ, but produce very few Nobel Prize winners. Almost all their people are either average or above average, but few are geniuses or incapable of graduating from school. Jews are the direct opposite. Many Jews have a low IQ, but the reverse side of the coin is the high proportion of Jewish geniuses.

Supposing that Jews are 2% of the population of the United States, and Jews have a median IQ of 115, and gentiles have a median IQ of 100, and both groups have a standard deviation of 15, the following chart shows the percentage of Jews at various IQ breakpoints:

Gentiles Jews
Entire pop. 98% 2%
IQ > 100 96.7% 3.3%
IQ > 115 94.0% 6.0%
IQ > 130 87.5% 12.5%
IQ > 145 74.4% 25.6%

Jews, despite their tiny population, would naturally be a much larger percentage of people in careers that require high IQs. This would be even further distorted if Jews had a cultural tendency to prefer certain types of careers over others, such as writing over hard science.

Writing Hollywood screenplays is a very highly g-loaded task, thus Jewish people comprise a very high percentage of screenplay writers. Stand-up comedy also seems to be highly g-loaded.

With the exception of folk rock, pop music is not so highly g-loaded so Jews aren’t as disproportionately represented among pop musicians.

Just as there’s not a white conspiracy keeping blacks from scoring well on the SAT, there is not a Jewish conspiracy keeping gentiles from writing screenplays. It’s just about the distribution of IQ.

Now take a look at Arthur Hu’s Jewish Spectrum.

By Population Ratio
=============================================
Ratio Average=1.00
———————————————
60.00 Time 20th Cent Top 20 (worldwide)
23.00 Westinghouse Science Talent Search
15.00 Supreme Court Law Clerk
13.00 US Law School Professor
12.00 ACM Turing Awards
10.00 Ivy League doc\94\13\ivypoll.wk1
7.14 Clinton Cabinet
7.00 McArthur Awards
6.89 Time 1997 Top 25
5.8 CA Congress 1992
5.35 UCLA ’91 Jews at high selective colleges
5.00 Pulitzer Prize
5.00 US Senator
4.80 Graduate Degree Nat Jewish Pop Surv
4.47 US Congress 1992
3.80 Fortune CEO 4-28-86
2.65 College Grad+
2.25 Liberal
2.00 Abortion always legal
1.85 Incomes over $40,000
1.80 Voted in 1994 congress race
1.70 Per capita Income Dale Warner / Thomas Sowell
1.95 Democrat Kosmin ’91
1.75 Democratic
1.12 2002 National Jewish Commitee Survey household income
1.05 Some College
-1.75 Conservative
-1.85 Republican
-1.92 Women 30-34 with children 52% vs 27%
-2.38 For Republican House
-2.75 Not registered to vote
-2.95 Income under $20,000 1988 LA Times
-3.25 HS Dropout
-5.2 Voted 96 Republican President

Why Study Jewish Genes? February 27, 2009

Posted by ethnicgenome in Jews.
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The blog will hopefully deal with a lot of different ethnic groups. Right now I am beginning with Jews and consider such study essential.

There are several reasons for this.

For religious reasons and due to anti-Semitism (such as segregation into the Jewish ghetto and the Pale of Settlement), Jews have been isolated genetically from other populations. Even when a Jew married a Gentile, the children were more likely to join the dominant majority rather than a persecuted minority. The lack of outside genetic inflow makes Jews a gold-mine in the study of ethnicity.

Jews are also distinct in several ways. Ashkenazi Jews also score the highest IQ of any ethnicity, with estimates ranging from 107 to 117 (half to full standard deviation). On the flip side of the coin is the lack of Jewish athletes, false myths about the Golden Age of Jewish Athleticism notwithstanding.

It is also less taboo to discuss Jews than others. Jews have a higher IQ than Gentiles passes much easier than whites have a higher IQ than  blacks.

And finally, while rank and file Jews usually acknowledge, at least in private, their intelligence and lack of athleticism, it is also the leftist Jews such as Stephen Rose, Gerald Dworkin and Richard Lewontin who’ve led the offensive of Lysenkoism (genes don’t matter, one can always adjust to become Albert Einstein or Tiger Woods) against evolution and genetics.

The funny thing is that there’s more information on Jewish genetics than on anyone else.

And to answer the question that I will surely face as to whether I am “some kind of Nazi” for writing about Jewish genetics: No, I am not a Nazi. The Nazis made it illegal to study intelligence differences because Jews outscored the Aryans. Sure they misused science in other ways. But that some people misuse science and turn it into political pseudo-science isn’t a reason to suppress the spread of legitimate information.

The second question I expect is that Jews aren’t a race or an ethnicity, but a religious group. This is false. Jews are both, but because the religious group and the ethnic group overlap more than 90% of the time, many English-speakers do not realize that there is a difference. In the Hebrew language, however, there are two words for it: ivri (Hebrew), meaning ethnic Jew and yehud (Jew), meaning a believer in Judaism. For obvious reasons, I will be concerned with Jews as an ethnicity rather than religion.