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European Genetic Admixtures: Y-DNA March 5, 2009

Posted by ethnicgenome in Caucasians.
Tags: , , , , , , , ,

This post is a continuation of “Mapping out the borders of whiteness“. If you haven’t read it, you probably should to understand this more clearly here.

The following classifications aren’t hard facts. A scientist would frankly laugh at them because all of these haplogroups appear among all European and Near Eastern peoples.

For example, R1b is generally thought of as West European where 60-90% of people belong to this haplogroup. In Central Europe (Germany, Czech Republic, continental Italy) the frequency is about 40%.

But we see the same ~40% frequency of R1b among Armenians, Ossetians and Jordanians in the Dead Sea region, which is higher than among Swedes, Norwegians and Sicilians.

It also present in significant numbers throughout the Near East (from 4% in UAE to 16% in Turkey) and Eastern Europe (from 2% among Ukrainians to 15% among Bulgarians).

As I’ve said before, haplogroups can be split further and are somewhat different from region to region. But the differences aren’t radically different and differences within a haplogroup are frankly still small enough to be placed in the same haplogroup.

With that said, you can classify certain haplogroups as being most common in particular regions. That is what the following will attempt to do.


R1b: Western Europe (Celtic, Basque, Italic, Frisian, Saxon)
R1a: Eastern Europe (Slavic, Aryan)
I1: Northern Europe (Germanic, Scandinavian)
I2a: Southern Slavic (Balkans and southwestern Ukraine. I2a1 is also present in large numbers in Sardinia, Basques.)
I2b: Western Europe (Germany, Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium and England)


J1: Arabs, Jews.
J2: Spanish, Italian, Sicilian, Greek, Anatolian Turkish, Jewish, and some French and Portuguese.
T: Small haplogroup that is most present among Egyptians, Iraqis, Serbs and the Spanish. Despite small presence anywhere and especially in Europe, it was the haplogroup of President Thomas Jefferson, Russia’s Czar Nicholas II and several English royals.
G: Most present in Caucasus (southern Russia), which is culturally Middle Eastern. About 60% of Ossetians; 30% of Georgians, Kabardinians and Balkarians.
E1b1b: North Africa, Jews and southern Europe in the same regions as J2, but especially Greece and Serbia at 27% and 24%. (Most of E haplogroup migrated back from the Near East to Africa, but E1b1b stayed above Sahara and spread into Europe. It is now the most common of Mediterranean haplogroups among most European ethnicities.)


N: First appeared in Southeast Asia. Its highest frequency occurs among the Finnic and Baltic peoples of northern and eastern Europe, the Ob-Ugric and Northern Samoyedic peoples of western Siberia, and the Siberian Turkic-speaking Yakuts.

Q: It is the dominant haplogroup among Native Americans. Also highly present among some Siberian Mongoloids like the Kets. (Their language has been linked to the Na-Dene languages among Indians in Western Canada and Alaska.)

European populations have only small traces of sub-Saharan haplogroups, so I will not include them here.

For simplicity’s sake, let’s combine haplogroups into European, Mediterranean/Middle Eastern and Asian/Amerindian.

The most European people are, not surprisingly, those on the British islands, particularly the Scots. They are 95% European, 4.5% Mediterranean and 0.5% non-white. The English are 92% – 7.5% – 0.5%. The Welch are 91.5% – 8.5% – 0%.

A little more surprising is the near complete lack of non-European genes among the Poles who are 94.5% – 5.5% – 0%.

This is somewhat surprising because the people with the most non-Caucasian Y-DNA are those around Poland. Russia is 67.5% – 8% – 24.5%. Estonia is 58.5% – 7.5% – 34.5%. Latvia is 59% – 1.5% – 39.5%. Lithuania is 56% – 1.5% – 42.5%.

And the Finns are the only people in Europe or the Near East who are mostly non-Caucasian at 40% – 1% – 59%. In fact, the Finns have so much non-Caucasian DNA that they could be classified as non-white at first look. But as I explained, their non-white Y-DNA is located mostly in the northern half of the country, so the south should be regarded as white and the north as mixed race.

Sweden has a lot less non-Caucasian Y-DNA at 88.5% – 2.5% – 7.5%.

The most Mediterranean/Middle Eastern people are the Greeks at 39.5% – 60.5% – 0%. Italy is 58% – 42% – 0 %. We also see a strong Mediterranean/Middle Eastern genetic influence in the Balkans and southeast Europe. Serbia is 57% – 43% – 0% and Hungary is 65.5% – 31% – 3.5%, while the Muslim Albania is 48% – 52% – 0%.

Interestingly, Portugal has a lot more J2 and E1b1b than Spain (but on the mtDNA side, Spain has the most non-Caucausian DNA at 23%). Portugal is 61.5% – 38.5% – 0%, while Spain is 79% – 14% – 0%.

Similarly interesting is the much higher presence of Mediterranean/Middle Eastern haplogroups among the Austrians (69% – 30% – 1%) than among the Germans (85.5% – 13.5% – 1%). The French are somewhere between them at 80% – 20% – 0%.

* I will do another post soon on the mtDNA, which is a bit more complicated for Caucasians than Y-DNA.



1. onur - March 30, 2009

Good job, EGP. Can you make the same analysis for the populations of West Asia, Caucasus, North Africa, Central Asia, South Asia and Siberia, which all carry different degrees of Caucasoid DNA? BTW, how much Caucasoid admixture do the populations of East Asia (including the South East) and sub-Saharan Africans have in both Y-DNA and mtDNA?

2. ANTHROPOLOGIQUE - June 23, 2009

Check Eupedia.com for recent updates. Information has been added that increases / decreases Euro haplogroup totals for a number of countries. Portugal, for example, is now at 66.5%. BTW, the R1b marker combinations for central and northern Spain and Portugal match or correlate closely with the Irish, Welsh, Western Scots, Cornish and Bretons. Many of the Spanish, Portuguese, Irish, Welsh, Scots, Cornish and Bretons are all genetically related. All of these countries are “Atlantic Celtic.” Portugal and Spain are primarily Western European nations with some Mediterranean influences.

3. Luis - June 26, 2009

The best study up to date about Portugal is by far not Eupedia ! but the study by Beleza et al. 2006 :

n= 657


E-M35 =12.5%

Others = 0.5%

4. ANTHROPOLOGIQUE - July 1, 2009

Hi Luis:

Do you have a link?

5. Antoine - July 10, 2009

Ayant consulté les statistiques données par vous, on y lit les résultats suivants (en %) conçernant le Portugal, l’Espagne, la France et l’Italie :

Portugal : Celtes(70)Ibères(25)Vikings(5)
Espagne : Celtes(40)Ibères(30)Germains(15)Vikings(7)Phéniciens(7)Arabes(1)
France : Celtes(70)Germains(20)Phéniciens(10)
et Italie : Celtes(35)Etrusques(20)Germains(12)Italiques(10)Phéniciens(10)Slaves(8)Arabes(5),


6. Katie - September 18, 2010

My dad has an indian haplogroup,autosomally he is 5% indian [affinity] – to compare your average european is 8-11% indian [affinity] [BGA].So his haplogroup skipped 95% of his euro ancestry.Obviously because it represents one ancestor out of zillions.

More than 60% of african american men are R1b because of one night stands/rape with slaveholders again skipping the majority of their ancestry.Haplogroups are an absolutely useless form of determining anything.Autosomes are what matters.

7. Katie - September 18, 2010

I should also add that a good majority of primary dutch/germanic men and women in South Africa have african mtdna/y-dna lines because of brief colonial liasons with slaves and locals.Again skipping the majority of their ancestry.

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